I figured that a Guide to Feeding Healthy Kids would be a logical follow up to my recent Guide to Feeding Healthy Babies. This is one of the areas I get the most questions about in Nutritional Consulting, and a hotly debated issue among moms. Is dairy the culprit? Sugar? Too much fat? Soda? etc…Grab a cup of (organic, herbal) tea, this is going to be a long one…
It’s quite obvious with a quick stroll down the perilous middle aisles of any grocery store that a lot of food marketing targets children, after all, silly rabbit, “trix are for kids!” Not so subtle TV commercials and even blatant bribe marketing (Happy meal toys) seek to educate our kids about nutrition. Call me old fashioned, but I’m not content to let a clown with big red shoes teach my kids what good food looks like (and I don’t care if it does come with milk and apple slices, Ronald!).
It is also no secret that obesity and type 2 diabetes rates are skyrocketing in kids and appearing at younger and younger ages… could there be a connection? (duh!) While most parents (I hope) agree that basic foods like healthy proteins and green veggies are important staples for the little ones, the issue of child nutrition is hardly a clear cut one anymore. With soccer games to play, choir practices to attend and a social schedule that would have made my dizzy at their ages, most kids these days (and moms!) just aren’t home at meal times much. This rapid paced lifestyle makes it easier to justify quick food, even if it is devoid of nutrients.
Another factor that I have noticed with many children is the connection to food as a type of reward. From a young age we reward birthdays with sweets, school achievements with meals out, good deeds with ice cream and even healthy eating with dessert (if you eat all 3 of your peas, you can have a piece of cake…)
Couple the above factors with the fact that most kids, once they escape the nutrient devoid school lunches and finally get home at night, are too tired to go out and play or chase a ball around for fun, and instead curl up in front of the TV or video games with a snack.
With the world against her, what is a health conscious mom to do? This is a question I struggled with myself for a long time before finally reaching family peace! Before I get to the how, let’s talk about the “what” to eat!
Like I said, most parents agree on the benefits of veggies and healthy proteins, it is all the other things that seem to cause the debate. Should they drink fruit juice? If so, how much? Is sugar ok in moderation? What about High Fructose Corn Syrup as the Surprisingly Sweet commercials advocate (hope you noticed the “sponsored by the Corn Refiners Association” note- no bias there). While there is certainly plenty of room for parental choice in a child’s diet, there are a few core food groups that a child’s diet should center on (I’ll give you a hint… it doesn’t look like the regular food pyramid!)
With the hub-bub of daily life, it is easy to forget just how important our kids nutrition is! The most simple and basic test of if a child should be eating a given substance is to determine if it is actually a food or not. Any “food” that can sit on a shelf and not decompose for a year, is likely not fit for consumption (try that with a salad and see what happens!). This “non-food” list would also include anything containing hydrogenated oils (peanut, soy, cottonseed, vegetable, canola, etc), anything containing MSG, anything containing High Fructose Corn Syrup, anything containing artificial sweeteners, and anything containing processed grains. This basically knocks out all the fast food, microwaveable food, “food” bars (except these), and most drinks besides water. It’s also important to avoid chemicals in sources that are not so easily recognized like the BPA in canned goods and bottled water in soft plastic or the antibiotics, hormones and pesticides found in conventional meat. Check out this article for details on just how bad these toxins are for little bodies.
If your head is swimming with the idea of all the things you shouldn’t feed your kids… don’t worry, the list of great foods is a tasty one! The following foods are excellent, and necessary sources of nutrition that every child should consume on a regular basis. If yours aren’t chomping down the Brussels sprouts just yet, stay with me, the “how to” comes later.
1. Good sources of Protein:
Proteins (amino acids) are used in every function in the body and are absolutely vital to all of us, especially those still forming bones and muscles. Healthy meats, especially, offer complete proteins that children desperately need for proper growth (the Tofu just won’t cut it here). I’ve heard all too many parents state that their kids “don’t like red meat” and then have their kids test positive for a B-12 deficiency. So what are healthy meats? Kids need real, untreated, chemical free sources of protein, and chicken nuggets just don’t cut it! Regular, daily consumption of pure, organic beef, chicken, turkey and eggs will ensure that kid’s protein need are being met. Most kids will eat healthy meats willingly once they have tried well-prepared sources. (check out some recipes here)
Proteins to try: grassfed beef, free range chicken and other poultry, organic organ meats, free range eggs, wild caught fish, wild game and other whole, real proteins. Even things like luncheon meats and bacon are ok if you can find the nitrate/nitrite free varieties.
Proteins to avoid: Processed meats like chicken nuggets, deli meats (with nitrates), meats that are served with processed foods (hamburgers, pizza, etc) and any non-meats like soy nuggets (what the heck even is that anyway!), commercially raised beef, poultry or fish.
2. Veggies and Fruits
Maybe you noticed I said those in the reverse of the order you are used to (eat fruits and veggies!). This was intentional. Studies show that Americans eat much more fruit that veggies, a trend that I hope will reverse. While fruits are wonderful and have their place, veggies are equally (or more) important, and have much less sugar. Even though fruits contain natural sugar, fructose in large amounts (even from fruit) can be damaging. Besides this, kids will usually choose fruit over veggies if given the choice, and many parents are happy to make this concession as long as the kids are “eating fruits and veggies.”
The top consumed veggies among Americans are french fries and ketchup (kids can’t buy happy meals themselves!). Even the foods we feed our kids, thinking we are increasing vegetable consumption are not really vegetables: corn (a legume), potatoes (a tuber, high in carbs and low in nutrition compared to other veggies and peas (a legume). Most kids receive a majority of their “vegetable” intake from tomato based products like ketchup or pasta sauce (tomatoes are genetically modified if not organic). Despite the widely acknowledged fact that veggies and fruits reduce risk of almost every disease, we still aren’t eating them! The good news…. as parents we have much more influence than we think in our kid’s diets! (more on that in a minute!)
Veggies and Fruits to Eat a LOT: Green and leafy (spinach, lettuce, mixed greens, kale, chard, turnip, mustard, etc), Colorful (peppers, tomatoes, onions, eggplant, squashes, carrots, celery, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbages, cucumbers, avocado, berries, bananas, grapes, etc), Unusual (leeks, fennel, okra, olives, artichokes, Bok Choy, Brussels Sprouts, Sea veggies, beets, parsnips, radishes, asparagus, kohlrabi etc).
Veggies and Fruits for Treats: Call me crazy, but most fruits, for my kids, are treats at the end of meals. While berries are in season, they feast with reckless abandon, but during most of the year, veggies come first and fruits are the “dessert.” After some adjustment, kids really do learn to love the natural sweetness in fruit, even over processed sugar. The higher sugar content fruits that make great treats are: apples, oranges/citrus, melons, mango, papaya (organic, or its GMO), pears, pomegranates, peaches and the like. Dried fruits (prunes, raisins, dates, dried cranberries, etc) are also higher sugar and are usually treats in the form of food bars.
Veggies and Fruits to Avoid: Fried ones like french fries, potato chips, onion rings and other non-foods, “vegggie” chips, “fruit” roll ups and “fruit” snacks, fruit juices (even the no-sugar-added types- they all act as pure sugar in the body and don’t compare to the nutrients in real fruit), any “fruit” or “vegetable” product that has ingredients besides fruit on the label.
3. Healthy Fats
Sadly, the low-fat trend in America is being passed on to kids also. We tend to surf the extremes, letting them eat fast food or junk food but giving them “healthy” low-fat alternatives at other times. While some parents, with the best of intentions, restrict fat in their kid’s diets to prevent weight gain, a restricted fat diet in kids can lead to health problems, vitamin deficiency and ADHD. Dietary fats carry the necessary vitamins A,D,E and K into tissue and allow for uptake. Breast milk, considered the most complete food for babies and toddlers is over 50% total fat and 40-50% saturated fat. It seems odd to me that children would suddenly go from a dietary need for this much fat to a much smaller need for dietary fat. A lack of necessary dietary fats, especially saturated fats, can cause reduction in the myelin sheath’s that coat kids brain cells, causing uncontrolled or rapid fire impulses in the brain, which presents as ADD or ADHD. It will be a paradigm shift for many of our generation to stop demonizing fats, but for our kids sakes, we need to make this jump. Kids under 14 especially need adequate amounts of fat (including saturated fat) and this intake should comprise 30% of their total diet. Be careful, of course, in choosing healthy fats, avoid trans fats and engineered fats like vegetable oils, hydrogenated oils and shortening.
Great sources of dietary fat: Coconut (raw, or as oil, shredded, flour, milk, butter… all coconut is great), avocados, olives/olive oil, butter, ghee, animal sources (as long as organic/grassfed), eggs, fish, organ meats, wild game, nuts, and seeds. I also recommend supplementing Omega-3s and Vitamin D.
Sources of Dietary Fat to Avoid: Polyunsaturated oils (liquid at room temp like peanut, soy, canola, vegetable, etc), hydrogenated oils, shortening, trans fats, and any other engineered forms of oil or fat. (P.S. these are the oils and fats used at restaurants and in most processed foods).
4. Things Kids Don’t Need
Anyone new may be wondering when I will mention of the “healthy whole grains” and dairy products. The truth is, you don’t need them and neither do your kids. Especially in processed or pasteurized forms, these two “food” groups are responsible for a lot of childhood allergies and are just not the superior nutrition sources that they are made out to be. Studies (and personal experience) prove that kids who can’t eat either of these sources due to allergies receive just as much (or more) nutrients as those who eat these regularly. The water soluble proteins like gluten and lectin, present in grains can do damage to the digestive system over time, and these particles can then pass through the small intestine and move into the blood stream where they are seen as a pathogen. The body creates an immune response and an allergy is born (not to mention you would basically have feces floating in your bloodstream!). The good news here is that in many cases, and especially in children, the body is very capable of healing itself if given real food! Even those who recommend intake of “healthy whole grains” for “fiber and nutrients” will acknowledge that meats, veggies, fruits and healthy fats have a much higher nutrient profile. While we avoid grains entirely, at the very least, they should be a small part of a child’s diet.
The issue of dairy in the diet can be an even more controversial one! While we don’t do much dairy, and only in raw, unpasteurized form from an organic farmer, dairy is a staple in many children’s diets at the recommendation of their doctors. Statistically, kids who go without the dairy by choice or by allergy still receive adequate calcium and other nutrients, dairy is the main source of dietary fat for many children. In some cases, even though dairy isn’t necessary, until this fat is replaced with more healthy sources (see above), removing all dairy can do more harm than good.
With all this information on what to feed your kids, the question then becomes, how the heck do you actually get them to eat this stuff. This was a major stumbling block for me. As a new mom, I used to feel guilty for making my son eat things he didn’t like. I shuddered at the thought of him going hungry, if only for one meal! It wasn’t until I started to realize how much he liked/wanted the unhealthy foods and how he was becoming increasingly resistant to healthy foods that I knew something had to change, and change it did! I realized that we, as parents, exercise authority in many other aspects of our kids lives, but turn into a short order cook at dinner time to please everyone in the family. We wouldn’t dream of letting them stay up three hours past bedtime, go without washing their hands or their clothes regularly, or throw down a few beers after school, but we routinely concede on healthy eating, even though it has a more detrimental effect than dirty clothes or staying up late!
“I’m the mom,” I realized, and dang it, my kids will eat healthy, and I will figure out a way for them to love it! Much to my relief and surprise, the transition was much easier than I expected. While kids can be picky, they are also extremely adaptable and resilient. They also see the effects of dietary improvement faster than we do. Also, as kids eat 3 to 4 times the amount of food per pound of weight as adults, the choices they (and I) make now, can and will affect them for the rest of their lives!
Some practical suggestions for the switch:
1. Make up your mind first!
When it comes to dietary shifts, you must present a confident front, and believe the information you are telling your kids! Research, meal plan and commit to making this positive change for your family.
2. Be Gradual But Firm.
While your kids won’t make the jump from happy meals to veggies smoothies in a day, they will adapt faster than you expect, and they will learn to love healthy foods. To start, put one small bit of each food you cooked on each child’s plate. (One small piece of chicken, one leaf of spinach, one piece of squash) Tell the child that he/she may have more of any of the foods you have cooked once he or she eats just the small amount of each. This way, the child is motivated to try new foods, but the amount is not so daunting that he or she refuses it altogether. Even the pickiest of eaters will eventually be willing to take one bite of a hated food to get to one he or she likes. After introducing foods like this for a while, slowly add more of each at meals so that after a few months, your kids are eating full portions of all the healthy foods. WARNING: Your kids will test you on this for the first few days! They might even go without eating for a meal or two. Don’t be alarmed. Stay calm, don’t push them, and just calmly explain that they don’t have to eat, but that the food they were given is what is being served and that is all they will get. This is the toughest 3 days!
3. Let Kids Decide if/when They Are Hungry
This is not to say, of course, that you shouldn’t set limits or that you should allow access to foods 24/7, but if a child is truly not hungry (or using this as an excuse to not eat healthy foods), don’t force the issue or resort to junk food just to get them to eat something. Kids are born with an amazing ability to know when they are hungry and to stop eating when they aren’t hungry anymore. This ability gets skewed by the chemicals in the food system, but it comes back quickly to kids. Realize that kids don’t always get hungry at meal times, and that skipping a meal, occasionally, is not going to harm them, especially during this adjustment. This is another reason for serving small portions of each type of food. The child will become more in touch with when he or she is hungry and how much food he or she needs if only given a small amount of each (he or she can always ask for more!). Alternately, if kids get hungry between meals, provided they have eaten healthy foods at those meals, let them have healthy snacks like nuts, veggies, fruits or chopped meats.
4. Give Rewards Besides Food
This is an important step to take with kids. We reward everything from good grades to good behavior to birthdays with food of some kind, creating a feeling that eating certain foods is associated with being special or doing well. While eating is certainly a social and family activity and many important events involve food, it is important to break the association with food and a feeling of achievement or happiness. Let family dinner time be the time of bonding over food shared, and let other things replace foods as rewards. Rewards can be a family outing, a bike ride in the park, a new book, the chance to have a friend over, etc. Breaking the cycle of associating food with fun and achievement will help ensure the child does not ever become an emotional eater and give the child a strong, rational, foundation to base dietary choices on.
5. Explain It To Them
Kids are brilliant little creatures with a God-given ability to learn much faster than we can. Too often we dumb down explanations of why they must do things or exaggerate them (Come on, honey, just eat one bite of this yummy, yummy broccoli that tastes so wonderful and will make you super strong!). Most kids respond extremely well to a logical and calm introduction to new (or disliked) foods. When we make a big deal out of getting them to try something, they learn that (a) dragging on the ordeal will result in more attention and (b) it must not actually be that good, or we wouldn’t be making such an ordeal about it in the first place. (When did you last say “Come on honey, try one bite of this yummy, yummy, cake and it will make you super hyper!”) Put the food on their plates, tell them what it is, and answer any questions. Don’t bribe, cajole or beg. It is healthy food, it is good for them, and it tastes good too. They are expected to eat it, period. If they ask, explain why the food is healthy and that making good eating choices is important for a healthy body. If they balk, stay calm! They will likely find that they actually do like many of the foods they previously shunned for their pasta or PB & J.
6. Let Them Make Choices, But Healthy Ones
While the adjustment to healthy eating can be tough, I’m not advocating becoming a food Nazi. Whenever possible, let the kids make their own choices on healthy options for food. Not only will they feel better about trying a food they chose, but it will help break down their perception that you have hijacked their ability to eat what they want. This is especially good at snack time when there is no specific meal already prepared and they can choose between carrot sticks or almonds. Remember that helping your kids eat healthy is more about empowering them to understand and choose healthy options, and this won’t happen if you never let them make choices. After about 3-4 weeks of good eating, you can even let them choose unhealthy options at a party or someone’s house. Likely, they will notice that they no longer feel good from eating the junk, and this will help them learn to make good choices also.
7. Model It Yourself
This might be the hardest part of getting your kids to eat healthy. Many of us carry perceptions of certain foods from childhood and don’t like to eat many veggies ourselves. Besides the fact that eating healthy is proven to reduce the risk of practically every disease and condition imaginable, we now have the added incentive of doing it for our kids sake. You, who would wake up several times during the night for a crying baby and then put in a full day of laundry, diapers, cooking and cleaning the next day can surely eat veggies in the name of doing what is best for your children. Parenting experts agree that children pick up behavior based much less on what they are told and much more on what they observe. If they see you routinely eating veggies and enjoying them, they will start to choose it themselves! If it helps, try lots of new veggies and find ways to involve lots of variety and color. The more visually appealing foods are the more likely they (and you) are to enjoy them. As a last resort, just remember that you can make yourself like any food if you eat it long enough.
8. Make Home Cooking A Priority
This can be very difficult with all the commitments and activities we all have, but this will be one of the most rewarding things you can do for your family. Not only will you get to spend quality time together, your chances of eating healthy drastically increase when you cook at home. You have the option of using more natural ingredients and more variety. Unhealthy options are not on the menu, tempting you to choose them, and the kids will get to see how foods are prepared. Make up your mind to do this and stick with it. This has been one of the most rewarding things we have done for our kids. They eat up the quality time and time together will benefit them in the long run much more than the extra, extracurriculars we often feel obligated to let (or push) them into.
9. Let Them See Where Food Comes From
Many kids today actually think that food comes from grocery stores. That was a wake up call to me when mine asked how the grocery store makes chicken! Many kids grow up with no knowledge or appreciation of how food is grown or raised and how it gets to them. If possible, take your kids to a farm or farmers market to expose them to a new way of viewing their food. Even better, grow a garden and let them help. (They are much more likely to eat what they have grown themselves). Just don’t visit a conventional beef or chicken facility… that is not the kind of connection you want with your food!
Good luck with trying to make the switch. Kids adapt quickly and you may discover that your child has a love for fresh bell peppers you never even knew about. For some more help, check out these recipes. Really want to branch out? Consider joining a CSA or shopping at a farmers market and eating with the seasons. Let he kids help you pick new foods and prepare them, and let me know how it goes!