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You know how important probiotics and fiber are for your gut. But do you know about prebiotics, the one all-important connection between the two? Prebiotic benefits include feeding probiotics and supporting the immune system, making them vital for gut health!
For a healthy gut, we need a steady intake of prebiotics to give healthy bacteria something to build on. Are you getting enough? This post explains everything you need to know about prebiotics, plus how to know if you need a supplement.
What Are Prebiotics?
Prebiotics are indigestible fiber. The stomach and small intestine cannot break prebiotic fiber down because they don’t have the right enzymes to do it. Gut bacteria, however, can ferment it. While it might sound bad to have fiber fermenting in your gut, this is how bacteria receive nourishment to reproduce.
If you’ve ever heard of resistant starch, you know of another kind of fiber with specific health benefits. Resistant starch helps with insulin sensitivity and blood sugar. This is because the starch requires more work to break down in the digestive tract.
Scientists used to believe oligosaccharides were the main type of prebiotics. They’ve since discovered gut bacteria also feeds on other things, like resistant starch. Some types of resistant starch can also be prebiotics, but not all of them meet the criteria.
Some foods have prebiotic properties all the time, like chicory root. Other types of fiber can develop prebiotic properties after they’re cooked. Some examples include white potatoes and certain types of pasta. These foods can become prebiotic because high heat alters their starch structure. This process makes it more resistant to full digestion. Once cooled, the fiber’s chemical structure is more gut-friendly for our microbiota.
When this fiber or starch gets to the large intestine, it feeds the bacteria in the microbiome. It also slows digestion so your blood sugar doesn’t spike as high as it would with warm starchy foods.
How to Make it as a Prebiotic
Prebiotics are primarily food sources for bifidobacteria in the gut. According to a 2017 article in Nature, foods have to meet certain criteria to be considered prebiotics.
- Not digestible in the stomach or small intestine.
- Reach the colon intact for fermentation by beneficial bacteria.
- Fermentation leads to the production of short-chain fatty acids and increases bowel movement mass.
- Reduces the pH in the colon.
- Improves the immune system and provides benefits to the host environment.
- Selectively stimulates the growth and activity of beneficial bacteria in the intestine.
- Offers health-protective benefits.
Prebiotics Foods List
There are many everyday foods that have prebiotic benefits for digestive health. Some of the best prebiotic foods include:
- Chicory root
- Dandelion root (not dandelion greens)
- Jerusalem artichoke
- Oats, cooked
- Linseed, cooked
- Barley, cooked
- Wheat, cooked
- White potatoes, cooked and cooled
Some types of prebiotics can be manmade. These include inulin and oligofructose, which are often found in prebiotic supplements.
Prebiotic Benefits for Health
Prebiotics don’t only feed the good microbes in your gut, although that’s their primary benefit. Without a generous population of good bacteria, our immune system won’t be strong. Prebiotics offer several benefits for our gut microbiome and more.
You already know how important probiotics are for gut microbiota and immune health. Think of prebiotics as the foundation probiotics are built on. Prebiotics don’t just feed good bacteria, they also stimulate gut-associated lymphoid tissues. This mechanism can have disease-reducing side effects.
While prebiotic benefits research is still fairly new, some studies show they may protect against colorectal cancer.
A 2012 study noted prebiotics help change microflora in the large intestine. This helped reduce the risk of rogue cancer cells forming. While other studies show mixed results, prebiotics are essential for a healthy colon. Eating prebiotics won’t replace regular medical care and screenings, but they’re a great way to support preventive wellness.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are two forms of IBD. While scientists are still learning about IBD we know it’s connected to the immune system. Dysbiosis, an imbalance of good and bad gut bacteria, is often linked with IBD issues.
Prebiotics boost the production of short-chain fatty acids to help Crohn’s disease. They can also help ulcerative colitis by lessening the amount of hydrogen sulfide gas in the gut.
It’s worth mentioning that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) isn’t as affected by prebiotics. While the initials are similar, IBS is a distinctly different condition than IBD. A 2019 meta-analysis found prebiotics don’t improve gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. They did however increase bifidobacteria probiotics.
We know dietary fiber helps relieve constipation. Prebiotic fiber can also support normal elimination by helping the good bacteria thrive. When good bacteria are in balance we have less diarrhea and constipation.
Prebiotic Benefits for Weight
The gut regulates a part of body weight balance. When our gut bacteria is off, this can cause low-grade inflammation. The result is a disruption in how the body digests and absorbs glucose and fat. This can lead to extra fat storage, poor insulin response, and higher glucose levels. All these things together can contribute to weight gain and trouble losing weight.
While there are many components to weight loss, fiber helps support glucose and insulin. When we consider the microbiome benefits, and the research that shows probiotic levels help with weight, prebiotics become even more important.
We can eat a great diet and even take great supplements, but we only benefit from what the gut absorbs. The large intestine absorbs some of our vitamins and minerals. Prebiotics help us better absorb crucial minerals like calcium and magnesium. This occurs in response to short-chain fatty acids made from prebiotics.
Vitamins K and B, including B12 and biotin, are made in the large intestine. This happens thanks to fermentation from fiber and intestinal bacteria. When the gut isn’t healthy, or we don’t eat enough fiber, we can be low on these important nutrients.
Our body needs B vitamins to support nerve, brain, and mood health. We also use it for methylation and red blood cell formation. Vitamin K is critical for healthy and normal blood clotting.
Prebiotics vs. Probiotics
Probiotics have been popular for years. While prebiotics are often confused with probiotics they’re distinctly different. We could even argue that prebiotics are more important than probiotics!
Think about it: we have good bacteria in the gut, but how much will they thrive if they don’t have anything to feed on? On the flip side, even a small amount of good bacteria can thrive when prebiotics are present.
Many people assume taking a probiotic supplement is enough, but most probiotic strains from supplements are short-lived. They may only live for hours or days (weeks at the most) in the gut. We have to keep taking them to maintain good results. The most essential inborn strains for humans can’t be replicated in capsules. We need to nourish the gut’s ability to make its own good bacteria.
While some probiotics have specific instructions, like taking on an empty stomach, we can have prebiotics any time of the day. There’s no need to worry about timing as long as we’re taking them. The gut will take care of the rest.
Prebiotic Benefits for Sensitive Guts
Sometimes probiotic foods or supplements can cause gut problems. Sounds backward, right? Probiotics from fermented foods, like kimchi, kombucha, and kefir can be loaded with histamine. This is especially true of lactobacillus strains.
People who are histamine sensitive, have a DAO gene mutation, MCAS, or SIBO can feel awful taking probiotics. Even if you’re just prone to allergies, high histamine probiotics can disagree with you.
Side effects can include upset stomach, diarrhea, extreme bloating, itching, and general discomfort. While some need to avoid these, prebiotic foods and probiotics with bifidobacterium are still helpful to nourish the gut.
How Often Should You Eat Prebiotics?
It’s important to eat a well-balanced diet for many reasons. When we only eat the same few types of carbohydrates all the time, we could miss out on prebiotics.
Ideally, we should get prebiotics in the diet on a regular basis. Gut bacteria need to “eat” as often as we do. When we go too long without enough prebiotic fiber, gut bacteria don’t have the nourishment they need.
It’s easy to not get enough prebiotics, but can we get too many? Eating too much fiber, in general, can lead to bloating and discomfort. This is especially true if someone goes from a low-fiber diet to a high-fiber one. It’s important to slowly increase fiber intake.
In general, we can’t get too many prebiotics that would affect the gut in a negative way. Gut bacteria will take what they need and eliminate the rest.
Do You Need Prebiotic Supplements?
Diets that regularly have prebiotic foods (daily or at least several times a week), probably don’t need supplements. Those who struggle to get enough fiber or are sensitive to many prebiotic foods could benefit from a supplement. Prebiotic supplements can increase bacterial diversity and have the same benefits as food-based prebiotics. Both support the immune system and promote nutrient absorption and balanced weight.
One of my favorite prebiotic supplements comes from Just Thrive. Their Precision PREbiotic is paleo and keto-friendly without the nasty fillers. Plus the fiber they use is gentler on the digestive system for a happier gut. I don’t know anyone who doesn’t enjoy having a soothed, healthy gut!
This article was medically reviewed by Jessica Meyers, MPAP, PA-C, RH(AHG), who specializes in herbal protocols and functional medicine. You can also find Jessica on Instagram. As always, this is not personal medical advice and we recommend that you talk with your doctor.
Have you ever tried prebiotic supplements? Do you eat a lot of prebiotic foods? Share your experiences and tips in the comments below!
Discussion (2 Comments)
You missed one of the biggest benefits of natural prebiotic resistant starch – it’s fermentation in the large intestine change the expression of the genes that control insulin sensitivity. It improves insulin sensitivity within hours after it has been consumed. This is a huge benefit as 1/3 of American adults are prediabetic and need this benefit. In 2016, the US Food & Drug Administration approved a qualified health claim that resistant corn starch reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes because of this insulin sensitivity improvement. While the FDA’s decision was based on 8 clinical trials with resistant starch from high amylose corn, recent clinical trials with green banana resistant starch and raw potato resistant starch have also shown improved insulin sensitivity. You can find links to all of these studies (and the FDA decision) at http://www.ResistantStarchResearch.com.
Thanks for bringing this up! It is mentioned in the article that prebiotics help with insulin and there is more information on specifics in the sources list.