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I have a confession. I don’t wear sunscreen regularly and when I do, I use mineral sunscreen. It’s a controversial statement in today’s world but I have several reasons for not slathering on the SPF 30 every time I leave my house…
For one reason, I want to get vitamin D naturally (which is important for actually protecting against sunburn and certain types of cancer). Also, I prefer optimizing my natural protection by eating foods that support it. I also avoid being in the sun’s rays more than is necessary for vitamin D production and use clothing and hats to protect against too much sun. But there are times when sunscreen is important, like when we go to the beach. But not all sunscreen is created equal, and some may cause more harm than good.
What’s the Difference Between Mineral and Chemical Sunscreen?
There are two main kinds of sunscreen: chemical and mineral. Chemical sunscreen uses chemicals to block UVA and UVB rays, while mineral sunscreen uses physical barriers in the form of minerals like zinc oxide or titanium dioxide (these are naturally broad spectrum).
Chemicals used in conventional sunscreen may include the following:
- ethylhexyl salicylate
However, some mineral sunscreens also contain chemical sunscreen ingredients, so it’s important to check the active ingredients.
Dangers of Chemical Sunscreens
These chemical sunscreen ingredients aren’t harmless either. They affect the body and the environment in serious ways.
In the 1970s, the FDA grandfathered in many sunscreen chemicals because they were already in use. These chemicals have never been evaluated for safety.
According to the Environmental Working Group (EWG), oxybenzone is the most concerning of the chemicals in conventional sunscreen. Oxybenzone can easily pass through the skin and into the body. It was found in 96 percent of the adult population and can cause allergic reactions, especially on sensitive skin. It was also found to be a weak estrogen and to have potent anti-androgenic effects (block hormones like testosterone).
Because of its connection to adverse birth outcomes and potential hormonal interference, EWG recommends that everyone, especially pregnant/breastfeeding women and children avoid oxybenzone containing sunscreens.
In addition to concerns about oxybenzone, EWG research has shown that retinyl palmitate (a form of vitamin A) can actually cause cancer when activated by UV rays on the skin. Ironically, this ingredient is added to some sunscreen products because vitamin A is an antioxidant known to help fight skin aging.
You can read the complete EWG guide to sunscreens here.
It’s Unclear Whether Sunscreen Really Prevents Cancer
Experts don’t even agree on whether sunscreen is helpful in preventing skin cancer. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), skin cancer rates have doubled in the last 30 years. At the same time, sunscreen use has only increased. In fact, the EWG specifically reports that:
“Rates of melanoma – the deadliest form of skin cancer – have tripled over the past 35 years. Most scientists and public health agencies – including the Food and Drug Administration itself – have found little evidence that the use of sunscreens in isolation from other sun protective measures prevent most types of skin cancer.”
Chronic sunscreen use can reduce the benefits of sun exposure and potentially increase skin cancer risk. A 2004 study published in the Lancet showed that indoor workers were twice as likely to get skin cancer than those who spent more time in the sun. Researchers explain that there may be a protective aspect of sun exposure.
We know that low vitamin D levels have been linked to cancer in many studies. So it would make sense that blocking sun exposure (and the vitamin D it creates) could have a negative effect on the body.
Sunscreen Can Cause Unsafe Sun Exposure
One more concern with sunscreen use is that many chemical sunscreens have high SPF ratings which may be misleading to consumers, causing them to spend too much time in the sun. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has talked about banning claims over SPF 50. This is potentially true for physical sunscreens as well, making the advice to stay out of the sun and wear clothes to cover the skin very important.
Chemical sunscreen use also affects the environment. People use sunscreen before swimming and much of it is washed off into the water.
Oxybenzone can be fatal to baby coral and damaging to adult coral in high concentrations, according to a study published in the Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.
This study found that oxybenzone:
- contributes to coral bleaching
- alters coral DNA
- acts as an endocrine disruptor (causing baby coral to encase itself in its own skeleton and die)
Concentrations of oxybenzone as low as 62 parts per trillion caused damaging effects. For perspective, the researchers explain that this is the equivalent of one drop in 6.5 Olympic swimming pools. Clearly, not much sunscreen is needed to cause environmental problems. It’s alarming then that they found that in Hawaii and the Caribbean (places frequented by tourists), concentrations were 12 times higher!
Additionally, a review published in January 2019 found that sunscreen chemicals such as oxybenzone, octocrylene, octinoxate, and ethylhexyl salicylate are in almost all water sources around the world. Researchers explain that they are not easily removed by common wastewater treatment plant techniques. These chemicals have also been found in fish around the world, potentially causing problems in the food chain.
Harms Other Marine Life
Oxybenzone is also toxic to algae, sea urchins, fish, and mammals.
According to MarineSafe.com, oxybenzone can have the following effects:
- Inhibits embryonic development in sea urchins.
- Causes gender shifts in fish (male fish take on female characteristics and female fish have reduced ability to produce offspring).
- Potentially acts as a mutagen and exhibits carcinogenic activity in mammals.
Other ingredients in sunscreens are also cause for concern. Organosilicon compounds like silicon polymers, that are used as alternatives to oil in commercial sunscreen are one of these ingredients. These can bioaccumulate in fish and other marine life according to a case study published in Environmental Science and Technology.
Preservatives (like parabens) are another concerning ingredient. They are added to stop the growth of fungi and bacteria in the product. Unsurprisingly, this ingredient may also disrupt the natural growth of these organisms in the ocean.
For this reason, Hawaii became the first state to ban sunscreens containing oxybenzone and octinoxate last year. Other places, including Key West, Florida have followed suit in an effort to protect ocean life and promote reef-safe mineral sunscreen lotion.
How to Find the Right Mineral Sunscreen
As mentioned earlier, some mineral sunscreens also contain chemical sunscreen ingredients. I like to make my own sunscreen and sunscreen lotion bars since I know exactly what goes into them. But there are times when a store-bought variety is more practical.
If you’re looking for a broad spectrum SPF mineral sunscreen that’s truly safe, check the ingredients. If any of the above chemicals are listed, consider better options. Additionally, if it’s made with zinc oxide or titanium dioxide make sure it is non-nano and pure. This means that the particles are not nano-sized (i.e., able to penetrate into the body). Also, note that many of these are not as water-resistant as chemical brands so reapplying or using sun protective clothing is also important.
The EWG lists some mineral sunscreens that are safe (and I’ve tried many of these personally):
- Badger Mineral Sunscreen
- Babyganics Sunscreen or spray sunscreen (Fragrance free and tear free, also claims to be water-resistant and UVA and UVB protective)
- Thinkbaby Safe Sunscreen
- Thinksport Sunscreen
- Blue Lizard Australian Sunscreen
- Babo Botanicals Clear Zinc Sunscreen (if you’ve avoided mineral sunscreen in the past because it makes you white as a ghost, try this!)
- California Baby Hypoallergenic Sunscreen (claims to be water-resistant and sun protective for 80 minutes)
- JASON Mineral Sunscreen
- Sunology Natural Sunscreen
- Earth Mama Lady Face Tinted Mineral Sunscreen Stick
- Raw Elements Sunscreen
Thankfully there are now so many companies making safe, natural sunscreen that there are too many brands to list!
Internal Sun Protection
As I mentioned at the beginning of this post, sunscreen isn’t the end-all-be-all to sun protection. Optimizing health so the body can protect itself with mild exposure to the sun is important. I like to focus on healthy foods that support skin health in general:
- Vitamin D3 is important for overall health and emerging evidence suggests it’s also important for avoiding sunburns.
- Vitamin C helps protect against the sun because of its anti-inflammatory properties.
- Coconut oil is used by the body for new skin formation and protects against burning.
- Omega-3s are anti-inflammatory fatty acids helpful in preventing sunburns.
- Astaxanthin is a highly potent antioxidant that research shows acts as an internal sunscreen. I don’t give this one to the kids though.
Also, avoid foods that increase inflammation and could increase the chances of sunburn. These include processed vegetable oils, processed grains, and excess sugar.
Sun Protection Without Sunscreen
The best form of sun protection is avoiding prolonged times in direct sunlight. Some sun is okay (and important) but after getting enough sun for vitamin D, cover up with long sleeves and hats or stay in the shade. The amount of exposure we can all handle depends on our skin tones and skin type, and it is important to avoid sun damage at all costs.
My Take on Mineral Sunscreens
Mineral sunscreens that don’t contain chemical sunscreens or nano physical sunscreen ingredients are our best bet for sunscreen protection. However, it’s always important to take other sun safety measures too. Getting enough vitamin D and other important nutrients, staying in the shade, and wearing protective clothing in the sun are all sun-protection techniques that complement mineral sunscreen.
This article was medically reviewed by Dr. Shani Muhammad, MD, board certified in family medicine and has been practicing for over ten years. As always, this is not personal medical advice and we recommend that you talk with your doctor or work with a doctor at SteadyMD.
Do you have a favorite brand of mineral sunscreen? Please share below!
Discussion (24 Comments)
Beautycounter has a wonderful lobe of safe sunscreens.
I’m not a fan of MLM companies…
Beautycounter is not an MLM. It’s a direct retail company and lobbies Congress to change personal care laws . MLM companies are only available through a consultant/rep. You can purchase Beautycounter on their website or one of their pop-ups without going through a consultant. The products are out of this world (with great results) and it’s the first company to be EWG-verified. It’s also a B-Corporation and Leaping Bunny approved.
The babyganics spray has octinoxate and octisalate in it.
Young Living has amazing mineral sunscreens!
Thoughts on the Trader Joe’s sunscreen everyone’s saying is the cheapest and best
Thank you for this info! Our biggest need for sunscreen is when our kids are swimming.
I clicked on several of the mineral sunscreens you recommended and none of them said that the zinc oxide was non nano. Do you know of any that do use the non nano zinc oxide? Also, I just read yesterday in an article from Radiant Life that “many DIY sunblocks contain zinc oxide, which has been shown to potentially generate free radicals upon sun exposure.” Is this not the case if it uses non nano zinc oxide? I am really at a loss as to a safe sunscreen to buy for my kids this year!!
The best sunscreen is clothing! They sell long sleeve sunblock shirts and they work great in the water
I use Green Beaver kids spray sunscreen on my kids. SPF 27. I spray it on my hands and then put it on them. It doesn’t make my kids look like ghosts! ?
Ingredients are…zinc oxide, helianthus annuus (sunflower) seed oil, caprylic/capric triglyceride, dicaprylyl carbonate, glyceryl isostearate, polyhydroxystearic acid, silica, jojoba esters, d-alpha tocopheryl acetate, Rubus idaeus (raspberry) seed oil.
FREE OF: UV chemical sunscreen filters(eg. avobenzone, oxybenzone etc), nano-sized ingredients, dimethicone, artificial fragrance, phthalate and parabens.
Just as an FYI, at least one of the amazon links you have listed above has a ton of terrible ingredients:
The Alba one has:
Octinoxate, benzophenone-3, octyl salicylate, homosalate, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, certified roganic infusion of green tea (camellia sinensis), lavender (lavendula officinalis), chamomile (chamomilla recutita) and ginkgo biloba, isopropyl palmitate, glyceryl stearate, isopropl palmitate, cetearyl alcohol, certified organic calendula (calendula officinalis) and lavender (lavendula officinalis), cetyl phosphate, potato starch modified (solanum tuberosum), methyl/propylparaben, phenoxyethanol
Great catch, Amy! The formula must have changed :/ We will remove the recommendation now.
Do you not recommend any Alba sunscreens then?
Not with their new formulation :/
Great article! I am a kiteboarder, and I spend a lot of time on the water in the sun. I didn’t know about the internal sunscreen protection ideas, those are great! But I love love love your point about just staying out of the sun. I wear a rashguard on the water, with gloves to protect my hands and always a hat. When I use suncreen, I use reef safe sunscreen because I don’t want to harm the environment. But yes! Rashgards and hats are so important with extended sun exposure!
We love our mineral sunscreen from Young Living! SPF 10 or SPF 50, it’s soothing to sun damaged skin and it rubs into the skin without leaving white streaks like other natural brands.
Do you still give your kids sundots gummies? Also in the homemade sunsceen is carrot seed oil safe for kids? I would imagine in such a small amount….thank you